Apache Hadoop
Apache Hadoop
Hadoop logo new.svg
Developer(s)Apache Software Foundation
Initial releaseDecember 10, 2011; 7 years ago (2011-12-10)[1]
Stable release
3.1.1 / August 8, 2018 (2018-08-08)[2]
Repository Edit this at Wikidata
Written inJava
Operating systemCross-platform
TypeDistributed file system
LicenseApache License 2.0

Apache Hadoop is a collection of open-source software utilities that facilitate using a network of many computers to solve problems involving massive amounts of data and computation. It provides a software framework for distributed storage and processing of big data using the MapReduce programming model. Originally designed for computer clusters built from commodity hardware[3]--still the common use--it has also found use on clusters of higher-end hardware.[4][5] All the modules in Hadoop are designed with a fundamental assumption that hardware failures are common occurrences and should be automatically handled by the framework.[2]

The core of Apache Hadoop consists of a storage part, known as Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS), and a processing part which is a MapReduce programming model. Hadoop splits files into large blocks and distributes them across nodes in a cluster. It then transfers packaged code into nodes to process the data in parallel. This approach takes advantage of data locality,[6] where nodes manipulate the data they have access to. This allows the dataset to be processed faster and more efficiently than it would be in a more conventional supercomputer architecture that relies on a parallel file system where computation and data are distributed via high-speed networking.[7][8]

The base Apache Hadoop framework is composed of the following modules:

  • Hadoop Common - contains libraries and utilities needed by other Hadoop modules;
  • Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) - a distributed file-system that stores data on commodity machines, providing very high aggregate bandwidth across the cluster;
  • Hadoop YARN - introduced in 2012 is a platform responsible for managing computing resources in clusters and using them for scheduling users' applications;[9][10]
  • Hadoop MapReduce - an implementation of the MapReduce programming model for large-scale data processing.

The term Hadoop has come to refer not just to the previously mentioned base modules and sub-modules, but also to the ecosystem,[11] or collection of additional software packages that can be installed on top of or alongside Hadoop, such as Apache Pig, Apache Hive, Apache HBase, Apache Phoenix, Apache Spark, Apache ZooKeeper, Cloudera Impala, Apache Flume, Apache Sqoop, Apache Oozie, and Apache Storm.[12]

Apache Hadoop's MapReduce and HDFS components were inspired by Google papers on MapReduce and Google File System.[13]

The Hadoop framework itself is mostly written in the Java programming language, with some native code in C and command line utilities written as shell scripts. Though MapReduce Java code is common, any programming language can be used with Hadoop Streaming to implement the map and reduce parts of the user's program.[14] Other projects in the Hadoop ecosystem expose richer user interfaces.


According to its co-founders, Doug Cutting and Mike Cafarella, the genesis of Hadoop was the Google File System paper that was published in October 2003.[15][16] This paper spawned another one from Google – "MapReduce: Simplified Data Processing on Large Clusters".[17] Development started on the Apache Nutch project, but was moved to the new Hadoop subproject in January 2006.[18] Doug Cutting, who was working at Yahoo! at the time, named it after his son's toy elephant.[19] The initial code that was factored out of Nutch consisted of about 5,000 lines of code for HDFS and about 6,000 lines of code for MapReduce.

The first committer to add to the Hadoop project was Owen O'Malley (in March 2006);[20] Hadoop 0.1.0 was released in April 2006.[21] It continues to evolve through contributions that are being made to the project.[22]


Year Month Event Ref.
2003 October Google File System paper released [23]
2004 December MapReduce: Simplified Data Processing on Large Clusters [24]
2006 January Hadoop subproject created with mailing lists, jira, and wiki [25]
2006 January Hadoop is born from Nutch 197 [26]
2006 February NDFS+ MapReduce moved out of Apache Nutch to create Hadoop [27]
2006 February Owen O'Malley's first patch goes into Hadoop [28]
2006 February Hadoop is named after Cutting's son's yellow plush toy [29]
2006 April Hadoop 0.1.0 released [30]
2006 April Hadoop sorts 1.8 TB on 188 nodes in 47.9 hours [27]
2006 May Yahoo deploys 300 machine Hadoop cluster [27]
2006 October Yahoo Hadoop cluster reaches 600 machines [27]
2007 April Yahoo runs two clusters of 1,000 machines [27]
2007 June Only three companies on "Powered by Hadoop Page" [31]
2007 October First release of Hadoop that includes HBase [32]
2007 October Yahoo Labs creates Pig, and donates it to the ASF [33]
2008 January YARN JIRA opened Yarn Jira (Mapreduce 279)
2008 January 20 companies on "Powered by Hadoop Page" [31]
2008 February Yahoo moves its web index onto Hadoop [34]
2008 February Yahoo! production search index generated by a 10,000-core Hadoop cluster [27]
2008 March First Hadoop Summit [35]
2008 April Hadoop world record fastest system to sort a terabyte of data. Running on a 910-node cluster, Hadoop sorted one terabyte in 209 seconds [27]
2008 May Hadoop wins TeraByte Sort (World Record sortbenchmark.org) [36]
2008 July Hadoop wins Terabyte Sort Benchmark [37]
2008 October Loading 10 TB/day in Yahoo clusters [27]
2008 October Cloudera, Hadoop distributor is founded [38]
2008 November Google MapReduce implementation sorted one terabyte in 68 seconds [27]
2009 March Yahoo runs 17 clusters with 24,000 machines [27]
2009 April Hadoop sorts a petabyte [39]
2009 May Yahoo! used Hadoop to sort one terabyte in 62 seconds [27]
2009 June Second Hadoop Summit [40]
2009 July Hadoop Core is renamed Hadoop Common [41]
2009 July MapR, Hadoop distributor founded [42]
2009 July HDFS now a separate subproject [41]
2009 July MapReduce now a separate subproject [41]
2010 January Kerberos support added to Hadoop [43]
2010 May Apache HBase Graduates [44]
2010 June Third Hadoop Summit [45]
2010 June Yahoo 4,000 nodes/70 petabytes [46]
2010 June Facebook 2,300 clusters/40 petabytes [46]
2010 September Apache Hive Graduates [47]
2010 September Apache Pig Graduates [48]
2011 January Apache Zookeeper Graduates [49]
2011 January Facebook, LinkedIn, eBay and IBM collectively contribute 200,000 lines of code [50]
2011 March Apache Hadoop takes top prize at Media Guardian Innovation Awards [51]
2011 June Rob Beardon and Eric Badleschieler spin Hortonworks out of Yahoo. [52]
2011 June Yahoo has 42K Hadoop nodes and hundreds of petabytes of storage [52]
2011 June Third Annual Hadoop Summit (1,700 attendees) [53]
2011 October Debate over which company had contributed more to Hadoop. [50]
2012 January Hadoop community moves to separate from MapReduce and replace with YARN [29]
2012 June San Jose Hadoop Summit (2,100 attendees) [54]
2012 November Apache Hadoop 1.0 Available [41]
2013 March Hadoop Summit – Amsterdam (500 attendees) [55]
2013 March YARN deployed in production at Yahoo [56]
2013 June San Jose Hadoop Summit (2,700 attendees) [57]
2013 October Apache Hadoop 2.2 Available [41]
2014 February Apache Hadoop 2.3 Available [41]
2014 February Apache Spark top Level Apache Project [58]
2014 April Hadoop summit Amsterdam (750 attendees) [59]
2014 June Apache Hadoop 2.4 Available [41]
2014 June San Jose Hadoop Summit (3,200 attendees) [60]
2014 August Apache Hadoop 2.5 Available [41]
2014 November Apache Hadoop 2.6 Available [41]
2015 April Hadoop Summit Europe [61]
2015 June Apache Hadoop 2.7 Available [41]
2017 March Apache Hadoop 2.8 Available [62]
2017 November Apache Hadoop 2.9 Available [63]
2017 December Apache Hadoop 3.0 Available [64]
2018 April Apache Hadoop 3.1 Available [65]


Hadoop consists of the Hadoop Common package, which provides file system and operating system level abstractions, a MapReduce engine (either MapReduce/MR1 or YARN/MR2)[66] and the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). The Hadoop Common package contains the Java ARchive (JAR) files and scripts needed to start Hadoop.

For effective scheduling of work, every Hadoop-compatible file system should provide location awareness, which is the name of the rack, specifically the network switch where a worker node is. Hadoop applications can use this information to execute code on the node where the data is, and, failing that, on the same rack/switch to reduce backbone traffic. HDFS uses this method when replicating data for data redundancy across multiple racks. This approach reduces the impact of a rack power outage or switch failure; if any of these hardware failures occurs, the data will remain available.[67]

Hadoop cluster
A multi-node Hadoop cluster

A small Hadoop cluster includes a single master and multiple worker nodes. The master node consists of a Job Tracker, Task Tracker, NameNode, and DataNode. A slave or worker node acts as both a DataNode and TaskTracker, though it is possible to have data-only and compute-only worker nodes. These are normally used only in nonstandard applications.[68]

Hadoop requires Java Runtime Environment (JRE) 1.6 or higher. The standard startup and shutdown scripts require that Secure Shell (SSH) be set up between nodes in the cluster.[69]

In a larger cluster, HDFS nodes are managed through a dedicated NameNode server to host the file system index, and a secondary NameNode that can generate snapshots of the namenode's memory structures, thereby preventing file-system corruption and loss of data. Similarly, a standalone JobTracker server can manage job scheduling across nodes. When Hadoop MapReduce is used with an alternate file system, the NameNode, secondary NameNode, and DataNode architecture of HDFS are replaced by the file-system-specific equivalents.

File systems

Hadoop distributed file system

The Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS) is a distributed, scalable, and portable file system written in Java for the Hadoop framework. Some consider it to instead be a data store due to its lack of POSIX compliance,[70] but it does provide shell commands and Java application programming interface (API) methods that are similar to other file systems.[71] A Hadoop is divided into HDFS and MapReduce. HDFS is used for storing the data and MapReduce is used for the Processing the Data. HDFS has five services as follows:
1. Name Node
2. Secondary Name Node
3. Job tracker
4. Data Node
5. Task Tracker
Top three are Master Services/Demons/Nodes and bottom two are Slave Services. Master Services can communicate with each other and in the same way Slave services can communicate with each other. Name Node is a master node and Data node is its corresponding Slave node and can talk with each other.
Name Node: HDFS consists of only one Name Node we call it as Master Node which can track the files, manage the file system and has the meta data and the whole data in it. To be particular Name node contains the details of the No. of blocks, Locations at what data node the data is stored and where the replications are stored and other details. As we have only one Name Node we call it as Single Point Failure. It has Direct connect with the client.
Data Node: A Data Node stores data in it as the blocks. This is also known as the slave node and it stores the actual data into HDFS which is responsible for the client to read and write. These are slave demons. Every Data node sends a Heartbeat message to the Name node every 3 seconds and conveys that it is alive. In this way when Name Node does not receive a heartbeat from a data node for 2 minutes, it will take that data node as dead and starts the process of block replications on some other Data node.
Secondary Name Node: This is only to take care of the checkpoints of the file system metadata which is in the Name Node. This is also known as the checkpoint Node. It is helper Node for the Name Node.
Job Tracker: Basically Job Tracker will be useful in the Processing the data. Job Tracker receives the requests for Map Reduce execution from the client. Job tracker talks to the Name node to know about the location of the data like Job Tracker will request the Name Node for the processing the data. Name node in response gives the Meta data to job tracker.
Task Tracker: It is the Slave Node for the Job Tracker and it will take the task from the Job Tracker. And also it receives code from the Job Tracker. Task Tracker will take the code and apply on the file. The process of applying that code on the file is known as Mapper.[72]
Hadoop cluster has nominally a single namenode plus a cluster of datanodes, although redundancy options are available for the namenode due to its criticality. Each datanode serves up blocks of data over the network using a block protocol specific to HDFS. The file system uses TCP/IP sockets for communication. Clients use remote procedure calls (RPC) to communicate with each other.

HDFS stores large files (typically in the range of gigabytes to terabytes[73]) across multiple machines. It achieves reliability by replicating the data across multiple hosts, and hence theoretically does not require redundant array of independent disks (RAID) storage on hosts (but to increase input-output (I/O) performance some RAID configurations are still useful). With the default replication value, 3, data is stored on three nodes: two on the same rack, and one on a different rack. Data nodes can talk to each other to rebalance data, to move copies around, and to keep the replication of data high. HDFS is not fully POSIX-compliant, because the requirements for a POSIX file-system differ from the target goals of a Hadoop application. The trade-off of not having a fully POSIX-compliant file-system is increased performance for data throughput and support for non-POSIX operations such as Append.[74]

HDFS added high-availability capabilities in May 2012,[75] letting the main metadata server called the NameNode manually fail-over onto a backup. The project has also started developing automatic fail-overs.

The HDFS file system includes a so-called secondary namenode, a misleading term that some might incorrectly interpret as a backup namenode when the primary namenode goes offline. In fact, the secondary namenode regularly connects with the primary namenode and builds snapshots of the primary namenode's directory information, which the system then saves to local or remote directories. These checkpointed images can be used to restart a failed primary namenode without having to replay the entire journal of file-system actions, then to edit the log to create an up-to-date directory structure. Because the namenode is the single point for storage and management of metadata, it can become a bottleneck for supporting a huge number of files, especially a large number of small files. HDFS Federation, a new addition, aims to tackle this problem to a certain extent by allowing multiple namespaces served by separate namenodes. Moreover, there are some issues in HDFS such as small file issues, scalability problems, Single Point of Failure (SPoF), and bottlenecks in huge metadata requests. One advantage of using HDFS is data awareness between the job tracker and task tracker. The job tracker schedules map or reduce jobs to task trackers with an awareness of the data location. For example: if node A contains data (a, b, c) and node X contains data (x, y, z), the job tracker schedules node A to perform map or reduce tasks on (a, b, c) and node X would be scheduled to perform map or reduce tasks on (x, y, z). This reduces the amount of traffic that goes over the network and prevents unnecessary data transfer. When Hadoop is used with other file systems, this advantage is not always available. This can have a significant impact on job-completion times as demonstrated with data-intensive jobs.[76]

HDFS was designed for mostly immutable files and may not be suitable for systems requiring concurrent write operations.[74]

HDFS can be mounted directly with a Filesystem in Userspace (FUSE) virtual file system on Linux and some other Unix systems.

File access can be achieved through the native Java API, the Thrift API (generates a client in a number of languages e.g. C++, Java, Python, PHP, Ruby, Erlang, Perl, Haskell, C#, Cocoa, Smalltalk, and OCaml), the command-line interface, the HDFS-UI web application over HTTP, or via 3rd-party network client libraries.[77]

HDFS is designed for portability across various hardware platforms and for compatibility with a variety of underlying operating systems. The HDFS design introduces portability limitations that result in some performance bottlenecks, since the Java implementation cannot use features that are exclusive to the platform on which HDFS is running.[78] Due to its widespread integration into enterprise-level infrastructure, monitoring HDFS performance at scale has become an increasingly important issue. Monitoring end-to-end performance requires tracking metrics from datanodes, namenodes, and the underlying operating system.[79] There are currently several monitoring platforms to track HDFS performance, including Hortonworks, Cloudera, and Datadog.

Other file systems

Hadoop works directly with any distributed file system that can be mounted by the underlying operating system by simply using a file:// URL; however, this comes at a price - the loss of locality. To reduce network traffic, Hadoop needs to know which servers are closest to the data, information that Hadoop-specific file system bridges can provide.

In May 2011, the list of supported file systems bundled with Apache Hadoop were:

  • HDFS: Hadoop's own rack-aware file system.[80] This is designed to scale to tens of petabytes of storage and runs on top of the file systems of the underlying operating systems.
  • FTP file system: This stores all its data on remotely accessible FTP servers.
  • Amazon S3 (Simple Storage Service) object storage: This is targeted at clusters hosted on the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud server-on-demand infrastructure. There is no rack-awareness in this file system, as it is all remote.
  • Windows Azure Storage Blobs (WASB) file system: This is an extension of HDFS that allows distributions of Hadoop to access data in Azure blob stores without moving the data permanently into the cluster.

A number of third-party file system bridges have also been written, none of which are currently in Hadoop distributions. However, some commercial distributions of Hadoop ship with an alternative file system as the default – specifically IBM and MapR.

  • In 2009, IBM discussed running Hadoop over the IBM General Parallel File System.[81] The source code was published in October 2009.[82]
  • In April 2010, Parascale published the source code to run Hadoop against the Parascale file system.[83]
  • In April 2010, Appistry released a Hadoop file system driver for use with its own CloudIQ Storage product.[84]
  • In June 2010, HP discussed a location-aware IBRIX Fusion file system driver.[85]
  • In May 2011, MapR Technologies Inc. announced the availability of an alternative file system for Hadoop, MapR FS, which replaced the HDFS file system with a full random-access read/write file system.

JobTracker and TaskTracker: the MapReduce engine

Atop the file systems comes the MapReduce Engine, which consists of one JobTracker, to which client applications submit MapReduce jobs. The JobTracker pushes work to available TaskTracker nodes in the cluster, striving to keep the work as close to the data as possible. With a rack-aware file system, the JobTracker knows which node contains the data, and which other machines are nearby. If the work cannot be hosted on the actual node where the data resides, priority is given to nodes in the same rack. This reduces network traffic on the main backbone network. If a TaskTracker fails or times out, that part of the job is rescheduled. The TaskTracker on each node spawns a separate Java virtual machine (JVM) process to prevent the TaskTracker itself from failing if the running job crashes its JVM. A heartbeat is sent from the TaskTracker to the JobTracker every few minutes to check its status. The Job Tracker and TaskTracker status and information is exposed by Jetty and can be viewed from a web browser.

Known limitations of this approach are:

  1. The allocation of work to TaskTrackers is very simple. Every TaskTracker has a number of available slots (such as "4 slots"). Every active map or reduce task takes up one slot. The Job Tracker allocates work to the tracker nearest to the data with an available slot. There is no consideration of the current system load of the allocated machine, and hence its actual availability.
  2. If one TaskTracker is very slow, it can delay the entire MapReduce job – especially towards the end, when everything can end up waiting for the slowest task. With speculative execution enabled, however, a single task can be executed on multiple slave nodes.


By default Hadoop uses FIFO scheduling, and optionally 5 scheduling priorities to schedule jobs from a work queue.[86] In version 0.19 the job scheduler was refactored out of the JobTracker, while adding the ability to use an alternate scheduler (such as the Fair scheduler or the Capacity scheduler, described next).[87]

Fair scheduler

The fair scheduler was developed by Facebook.[88] The goal of the fair scheduler is to provide fast response times for small jobs and Quality of service (QoS) for production jobs. The fair scheduler has three basic concepts.[89]

  1. Jobs are grouped into pools.
  2. Each pool is assigned a guaranteed minimum share.
  3. Excess capacity is split between jobs.

By default, jobs that are uncategorized go into a default pool. Pools have to specify the minimum number of map slots, reduce slots, as well as a limit on the number of running jobs.

Capacity scheduler

The capacity scheduler was developed by Yahoo. The capacity scheduler supports several features that are similar to those of the fair scheduler.[90]

  1. Queues are allocated a fraction of the total resource capacity.
  2. Free resources are allocated to queues beyond their total capacity.
  3. Within a queue, a job with a high level of priority has access to the queue's resources.

There is no preemption once a job is running.

Difference between Hadoop 1 vs Hadoop 2 (YARN)

The biggest difference between Hadoop 1 and Hadoop 2 involves YARN technology. In the first version of Hadoop, the core components included Hadoop Common, HDFS, and MapReduce, but the second version of Hadoop came out with a new technology called YARN - an acronym for "Yet Another Resource Negotiator".

YARN, an open source resource management technology, is deployed on a Hadoop cluster. YARN strives to allocate the resources to various applications effectively. It runs two daemons, which take care of two different tasks: job tracking and progress monitoring.

These two daemons are called the resource manager and the application master. The resource manager allocates resources to various applications, and the application master monitors the execution of the process.

Difference between Hadoop 2 vs Hadoop 3

There are important features provided by Hadoop 3. For example, while there is one single namenode in Hadoop 2, Hadoop 3 enables having multiple name nodes, which solves the single point of failure problem.

In Hadoop 3, there are containers working in principle of Docker, which reduces time spent on application development.

One of the biggest changes is that Hadoop 3 decreases storage overhead with erasure coding.

Also, Hadoop 3 permits usage of GPU hardware within the cluster, which is a very substantial benefit to execute deep learning algorithms on a Hadoop cluster.[91]

Other applications

The HDFS file system is not restricted to MapReduce jobs. It can be used for other applications, many of which are under development at Apache. The list includes the HBase database, the Apache Mahout machine learning system, and the Apache Hive Data Warehouse system. Hadoop can, in theory, be used for any sort of work that is batch-oriented rather than real-time, is very data-intensive, and benefits from parallel processing of data. It can also be used to complement a real-time system, such as lambda architecture, Apache Storm, Flink and Spark Streaming.[92]

As of October 2009, commercial applications of Hadoop[93] included:-

  • log and/or clickstream analysis of various kinds
  • marketing analytics
  • machine learning and/or sophisticated data mining
  • image processing
  • processing of XML messages
  • web crawling and/or text processing
  • general archiving, including of relational/tabular data, e.g. for compliance

Prominent use cases

On February 19, 2008, Yahoo! Inc. launched what they claimed was the world's largest Hadoop production application. The Yahoo! Search Webmap is a Hadoop application that runs on a Linux cluster with more than 10,000 cores and produced data that was used in every Yahoo! web search query.[94] There are multiple Hadoop clusters at Yahoo! and no HDFS file systems or MapReduce jobs are split across multiple data centers. Every Hadoop cluster node bootstraps the Linux image, including the Hadoop distribution. Work that the clusters perform is known to include the index calculations for the Yahoo! search engine. In June 2009, Yahoo! made the source code of its Hadoop version available to the open-source community.[95]

In 2010, Facebook claimed that they had the largest Hadoop cluster in the world with 21 PB of storage.[96] In June 2012, they announced the data had grown to 100 PB[97] and later that year they announced that the data was growing by roughly half a PB per day.[98]

As of 2013, Hadoop adoption had become widespread: more than half of the Fortune 50 companies used Hadoop.[99]

Hadoop hosting in the cloud

Hadoop can be deployed in a traditional onsite datacenter as well as in the cloud.[100] The cloud allows organizations to deploy Hadoop without the need to acquire hardware or specific setup expertise.[101] Vendors who currently have an offer for the cloud include Microsoft, Amazon, CenturyLink Cloud , IBM,[102] Google, SAP,[103] and Oracle.[104]

On Microsoft Azure

Azure HDInsight[105] is a service that deploys Hadoop on Microsoft Azure. HDInsight uses Hortonworks HDP and was jointly developed for HDI with Hortonworks. HDI allows programming extensions with .NET (in addition to Java). HDInsight also supports the creation of Hadoop clusters using Linux with Ubuntu.[105] By deploying HDInsight in the cloud, organizations can spin up the number of nodes they want and only get charged for the compute and storage that is used.[105] Hortonworks implementations can also move data from the on-premises datacenter to the cloud for backup, development/test, and bursting scenarios.[105] It is also possible to run Cloudera or Hortonworks Hadoop clusters on Azure Virtual Machines.

On Amazon EC2/S3 services

It is possible to run Hadoop on Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3).[106] As an example, in 2007 The New York Times used 100 Amazon EC2 instances and a Hadoop application to process 4 TB of raw image TIFF data (stored in S3) into 11 million finished PDFs in the space of 24 hours at a computation cost of about $240 (not including bandwidth).[107]

There is support for the S3 object store in the Apache Hadoop releases, though this is below what one expects from a traditional POSIX filesystem. Specifically, operations such as rename and delete on directories are not atomic, and can take time proportional to the number of entries and the amount of data in them.

On Amazon Elastic MapReduce

Elastic MapReduce (EMR)[108] was introduced by Amazon.com in April 2009. Provisioning of the Hadoop cluster, running and terminating jobs, and handling data transfer between EC2 (VM) and S3 (Object Storage) are automated by Elastic MapReduce. Apache Hive, which is built on top of Hadoop for providing data warehouse services, is also offered in Elastic MapReduce.[109] Support for using Spot Instances[110] was later added in August 2011.[111] Elastic MapReduce is fault-tolerant for slave failures,[112] and it is recommended to only run the Task Instance Group on spot instances to take advantage of the lower cost while maintaining availability.[113]

On CenturyLink Cloud (CLC)

CenturyLink Cloud[114] offers Hadoop via both a managed and un-managed model.[115] CLC also offers customers several managed Cloudera Blueprints, the newest managed service in the CenturyLink Cloud big data portfolio, which also includes Cassandra and MongoDB solutions.[116]

On Google Cloud Platform

There are multiple ways to run the Hadoop ecosystem on Google Cloud Platform ranging from self-managed to Google-managed.[117]

  • Google Cloud Dataproc: a managed Spark and Hadoop service[118]
  • command line tools (bdutil): a collection of shell scripts to manually create and manage Spark and Hadoop clusters[119]
  • third party Hadoop distributions:
    • Cloudera - using the Cloudera Director Plugin for Google Cloud Platform[120]
    • Hortonworks - using bdutil support for Hortonworks HDP[121]
    • MapR - using bdutil support for MapR[122]

Google also offers connectors for using other Google Cloud Platform products with Hadoop, such as a Google Cloud Storage connector for using Google Cloud Storage and a Google BigQuery connector for using Google BigQuery.

On SAP Cloud Platform

The SAP Cloud Platform Big Data Services provide a performance-driven and robust big data framework using Apache Hadoop and Spark.

On Oracle Cloud Platform

Hadoop is available on Oracle Cloud through the Oracle Big Data Cloud. It provides big data services and deployment models. Big Data Cloud Service and Big Data SQL Cloud Service can be combined with Oracle's analytics platform. These services can be deployed in Public Cloud and in Hybrid Cloud as Cloud At Customer.

Commercial support

A number of companies offer commercial implementations or support for Hadoop.[123]


The Apache Software Foundation has stated that only software officially released by the Apache Hadoop Project can be called Apache Hadoop or Distributions of Apache Hadoop.[124] The naming of products and derivative works from other vendors and the term "compatible" are somewhat controversial within the Hadoop developer community.[125]


Some papers influenced the birth and growth of Hadoop and big data processing. Some of these are:

See also


  1. ^ "Hadoop Releases". apache.org. Apache Software Foundation. Retrieved .
  2. ^ a b "Welcome to Apache Hadoop!". hadoop.apache.org. Retrieved .
  3. ^ Judge, Peter (2012-10-22). "Doug Cutting: Big Data Is No Bubble". silicon.co.uk. Retrieved .
  4. ^ Woodie, Alex (2014-05-12). "Why Hadoop on IBM Power". datanami.com. Datanami. Retrieved .
  5. ^ Hemsoth, Nicole (2014-10-15). "Cray Launches Hadoop into HPC Airspace". hpcwire.com. Retrieved .
  6. ^ "What is the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS)?". ibm.com. IBM. Retrieved .
  7. ^ Malak, Michael (2014-09-19). "Data Locality: HPC vs. Hadoop vs. Spark". datascienceassn.org. Data Science Association. Retrieved .
  8. ^ "Characterization and Optimization of Memory-Resident MapReduce on HPC Systems" (pdf). IEEE. October 2014.
  9. ^ "Resource (Apache Hadoop Main 2.5.1 API)". apache.org. Apache Software Foundation. 2014-09-12. Retrieved .
  10. ^ Murthy, Arun (2012-08-15). "Apache Hadoop YARN - Concepts and Applications". hortonworks.com. Hortonworks. Retrieved .
  11. ^ "Continuuity Raises $10 Million Series A Round to Ignite Big Data Application Development Within the Hadoop Ecosystem". finance.yahoo.com. Marketwired. 2012-11-14. Retrieved .
  12. ^ "Hadoop-related projects at". Hadoop.apache.org. Retrieved .
  13. ^ Data Science and Big Data Analytics: Discovering, Analyzing, Visualizing and Presenting Data. John Wiley & Sons. 2014-12-19. p. 300. ISBN 9781118876220. Retrieved .
  14. ^ "[nlpatumd] Adventures with Hadoop and Perl". Mail-archive.com. 2010-05-02. Retrieved .
  15. ^ Cutting, Mike; Cafarella, Ben; Lorica, Doug (2016-03-31). "The next 10 years of Apache Hadoop". O'Reilly Media. Retrieved .
  16. ^ Ghemawat, Sanjay; Gobioff, Howard; Leung, Shun-Tak. "The Google File System".
  17. ^ Dean, Jeffrey; Ghemawat, Sanjay. "MapReduce: Simplified Data Processing on Large Clusters".
  18. ^ Cutting, Doug (28 Jan 2006). "new mailing lists request: hadoop". issues.apache.org. The Lucene PMC has voted to split part of Nutch into a new sub-project named Hadoop
  19. ^ Vance, Ashlee (2009-03-17). "Hadoop, a Free Software Program, Finds Uses Beyond Search". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 30, 2011. Retrieved .
  20. ^ Cutting, Doug (30 March 2006). "[RESULT] VOTE: add Owen O'Malley as Hadoop committer". hadoop-common-dev (Mailing list).
  21. ^ "Index of /dist/hadoop/core". archive.apache.org. Retrieved 2017.
  22. ^ "Who We Are". hadoop.apache.org. Retrieved 2017.
  23. ^ "Google Research Publication: The Google File System". Retrieved .
  24. ^ "Google Research Publication: MapReduce". Retrieved .
  25. ^ "[INFRA-700] new mailing lists request: hadoop - ASF JIRA". Retrieved .
  26. ^ "[HADOOP-1] initial import of code from Nutch - ASF JIRA". Retrieved .
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k White, Tom (2012). Hadoop: The Definitive Guide (3rd ed.). O'Reilly. ISBN 9781449328917.
  28. ^ "[NUTCH-197] NullPointerException in TaskRunner if application jar does not have "lib" directory - ASF JIRA". Retrieved .
  29. ^ a b "From Spiders to Elephants: The History of Hadoop". Retrieved .
  30. ^ "Index of /dist/hadoop/core". Retrieved .
  31. ^ a b "Hadoop Summit 2009". Riccomini.name. Retrieved .
  32. ^ "Apache Hadoop Releases". Retrieved .
  33. ^ Gates, Alan (2011). Programming Pig. O'Reilly. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-4493-0264-1.
  34. ^ "Yahoo! Launches World's Largest Hadoop Production Application". hadoopnew - Yahoo. Archived from the original on 2013-05-26. Retrieved .
  35. ^ "RE: Hadoop summit / workshop at Yahoo!". Retrieved .
  36. ^ "TeraByte Sort on Apache Hadoop" (PDF). Sortbenchmark.org. Retrieved 2017.
  37. ^ "Apache Hadoop Wins Terabyte Sort Benchmark". Developer.yahoo.com. Retrieved .
  38. ^ "Cloudera". Crunchbase.com. Retrieved .
  39. ^ "Winning a 60 Second Dash with a Yellow Elephant" (PDF). Sortbenchmark.org. Retrieved 2017.
  40. ^ "Events & Media" (PDF). Mollynix.com. Retrieved 2017.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Welcome to Apache(TM) Hadoop®!". Hadoop.apache.org. Retrieved .
  42. ^ "MapR Technologies". Crunchbase.com. Retrieved .
  43. ^ "Yahoo! Updates from Hadoop Summit 2010". Think Big Analytics. Retrieved 2016. Baldeschwieler announced that Yahoo has released a beta test of Hadoop Security, which uses Kerberos for authentication and allows colocation of business sensitive data within the same cluster.
  44. ^ "Apache HBase - Apache HBase(TM) Home". Retrieved .
  45. ^ "Hadoop Summit 2010 - Agenda is available!". hadoopnew - Yahoo. Retrieved .
  46. ^ a b "Hadoop Summit 2010". Retrieved .
  47. ^ "Apache Hive TM". Retrieved .
  48. ^ "Welcome to Apache Pig!". Retrieved .
  49. ^ "Apache ZooKeeper - Home". Retrieved .
  50. ^ a b "Reality Check: Contributions to Apache Hadoop -- Hortonworks". Retrieved .
  51. ^ "Apache Hadoop takes top prize at Media Guardian Innovation Awards". The Guardian. Retrieved .
  52. ^ a b Harris, Derrick. "The history of Hadoop: From 4 nodes to the future of data". Gigaom. Retrieved .
  53. ^ "Hadoop Summit 2011: June 29th, Santa Clara Convention Center". hadoopnew - Yahoo. Retrieved .
  54. ^ "Fifth Annual Hadoop Summit 2012 Kicks Off with Record Attendance - Hortonworks". Retrieved .
  55. ^ "Hadoop Summit 2013 Amsterdam - It's A Wrap! - Hortonworks". Retrieved .
  56. ^ "Hadoop at Yahoo!: More Than Ever Before". Retrieved .
  57. ^ "Hadoop Summit North America 2013 Draws Record Ecosystem Support". Business Wire. Retrieved .
  58. ^ "The Apache Software Foundation Announces Apache(TM) Spark(TM) as a Top-Level Project : The Apache Software Foundation Blog". Retrieved .
  59. ^ "Loved Hadoop Summit Europe 2014 - Hope you did too! - SAP HANA". Retrieved .
  60. ^ "Hadoop Summit 2014 - Big Data Keeps Getting Bigger". Pentaho. Retrieved .
  61. ^ "Hadoop Summit Europe 2015, 15th-16th April 2015". Lanyrd. Retrieved .
  62. ^ "Hadoop - Apache Hadoop 2.8.0". hadoop.apache.org. Retrieved .
  63. ^ "Hadoop - Apache Hadoop 2.9.0". hadoop.apache.org. Retrieved .
  64. ^ "Hadoop - Apache Hadoop 3.0.0". hadoop.apache.org. Retrieved .
  65. ^ "Hadoop - Apache Hadoop 3.1.0". hadoop.apache.org. Retrieved .
  66. ^ Chouraria, Harsh (21 October 2012). "MR2 and YARN Briefly Explained". Cloudera.com. Retrieved 2013.
  67. ^ "HDFS User Guide". Hadoop.apache.org. Retrieved .
  68. ^ "Running Hadoop on Ubuntu Linux System(Multi-Node Cluster)".
  69. ^ "Running Hadoop on Ubuntu Linux (Single-Node Cluster)". Retrieved 2013.
  70. ^ Evans, Chris (Oct 2013). "Big data storage: Hadoop storage basics". computerweekly.com. Computer Weekly. Retrieved 2016. HDFS is not a file system in the traditional sense and isn't usually directly mounted for a user to view
  71. ^ deRoos, Dirk. "Managing Files with the Hadoop File System Commands". dummies.com. For Dummies. Retrieved 2016.
  73. ^ "HDFS Architecture". Retrieved 2013.
  74. ^ a b Pessach, Yaniv (2013). "Distributed Storage" (Distributed Storage: Concepts, Algorithms, and Implementations ed.). Amazon.com
  75. ^ "Version 2.0 provides for manual failover and they are working on automatic failover:". Hadoop.apache.org. Retrieved 2013.
  76. ^ "Improving MapReduce performance through data placement in heterogeneous Hadoop Clusters" (PDF). Eng.auburn.ed. April 2010.
  77. ^ "Mounting HDFS". Retrieved .
  78. ^ Shafer, Jeffrey; Rixner, Scott; Cox, Alan. "The Hadoop Distributed Filesystem: Balancing Portability and Performance" (PDF). Rice University. Retrieved .
  79. ^ Mouzakitis, Evan. "How to Collect Hadoop Performance Metrics". Retrieved .
  80. ^ "HDFS Users Guide - Rack Awareness". Hadoop.apache.org. Retrieved .
  81. ^ "Cloud analytics: Do we really need to reinvent the storage stack?" (PDF). IBM. June 2009.
  82. ^ "HADOOP-6330: Integrating IBM General Parallel File System implementation of Hadoop Filesystem interface". IBM. 2009-10-23.
  83. ^ "HADOOP-6704: add support for Parascale filesystem". Parascale. 2010-04-14.
  84. ^ "HDFS with CloudIQ Storage". Appistry,Inc. 2010-07-06.
  85. ^ "High Availability Hadoop". HP. 2010-06-09.
  86. ^ "Commands Guide". Web.archive.org. 17 August 2011. Archived from the original on 17 August 2011. Retrieved 2017.
  87. ^ "Refactor the scheduler out of the JobTracker". Hadoop Common. Apache Software Foundation. Retrieved 2012.
  88. ^ Jones, M. Tim (6 December 2011). "Scheduling in Hadoop". ibm.com. IBM. Retrieved 2013.
  89. ^ "Hadoop Fair Scheduler Design Document" (PDF). apache.org. Retrieved 2017.
  90. ^ "CapacityScheduler Guide". Hadoop.apache.org. Retrieved 2015.
  91. ^ "How Apache Hadoop 3 Adds Value Over Apache Hadoop 2". hortonworks.com. Retrieved .
  92. ^ "Benchmarking Streaming Computation Engines: Storm, Flink and Spark Streaming" (PDF). IEEE. May 2016.
  93. ^ ""How 30+ enterprises are using Hadoop", in DBMS2". Dbms2.com. 10 October 2009. Retrieved .
  94. ^ "Yahoo! Launches World's Largest Hadoop Production Application". Yahoo. 19 February 2008. Retrieved 2015.
  95. ^ "Hadoop and Distributed Computing at Yahoo!". Yahoo!. 2011-04-20. Retrieved .
  96. ^ "HDFS: Facebook has the world's largest Hadoop cluster!". Hadoopblog.blogspot.com. 2010-05-09. Retrieved .
  97. ^ "Under the Hood: Hadoop Distributed File system reliability with Namenode and Avatarnode". Facebook. Retrieved .
  98. ^ "Under the Hood: Scheduling MapReduce jobs more efficiently with Corona". Facebook. Retrieved .
  99. ^ "Altior's AltraSTAR - Hadoop Storage Accelerator and Optimizer Now Certified on CDH4 (Cloudera's Distribution Including Apache Hadoop Version 4)" (Press release). Eatontown, NJ: Altior Inc. 2012-12-18. Retrieved .
  100. ^ "Hadoop - Microsoft Azure". azure.microsoft.com. Retrieved 2017.
  101. ^ "Hadoop". Azure.microsoft.com. Retrieved .
  102. ^ "IBM BigInsights on Cloud". 03.ibm.com. 1 January 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  103. ^ "SAP Cloud Platform Big Data Services | SAP Cloud Platform". cloudplatform.sap.com. Retrieved .
  104. ^ "Oracle's cloud analytics platform comprises several tools". Retrieved 2016.
  105. ^ a b c d "HDInsight | Cloud Hadoop". Azure.microsoft.com. Retrieved .
  106. ^ Varia, Jinesh (@jinman). "Taking Massive Distributed Computing to the Common Man - Hadoop on Amazon EC2/S3". Amazon Web Services Blog. Amazon.com. Retrieved 2012.
  107. ^ Gottfrid, Derek (1 November 2007). "Self-service, Prorated Super Computing Fun!". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010.
  108. ^ "AWS | Amazon Elastic MapReduce (EMR) | Hadoop MapReduce in the Cloud". Aws.amazon.com. Retrieved .
  109. ^ "Amazon Elastic MapReduce Developer Guide" (PDF). Retrieved .
  110. ^ "Amazon EC2 Spot Instances". Aws.amazon.com. Retrieved .
  111. ^ "Amazon Elastic MapReduce Now Supports Spot Instances". Amazon.com. 2011-08-18. Retrieved .
  112. ^ "Amazon Elastic MapReduce FAQs". Amazon.com. Retrieved .
  113. ^ Using Spot Instances with EMR on YouTube
  114. ^ "Cloud Computing Services and Managed Services - CenturyLink Cloud". Ctl.io. Retrieved 2017.
  115. ^ "Managed Cloudera". Ctl.io. Retrieved 2017.
  116. ^ "Hadoop Simplified: Managed Cloudera". Ctl.io. Retrieved 2017.
  117. ^ "Apache Spark and Apache Hadoop on Google Cloud Platform Documentation - Apache Hadoop on Google Cloud Platform". Google Cloud Platform. Retrieved 2017.
  118. ^ "Cloud Dataproc - Cloud-native Hadoop & Spark - Google Cloud Platform". Google Cloud Platform. Retrieved 2017.
  119. ^ "Quickstarts - Google Cloud Dataproc Documentation - Google Cloud Platform". Google Cloud Platform. Retrieved 2017.
  120. ^ "Cloudera now Certified on Google Cloud Platform - Cloudera VISION". Vision.cloudera.com. 17 August 2015. Retrieved 2017.
  121. ^ "HDP on Google Cloud Platform". Hortonworks.com. 22 January 2015. Retrieved 2017.
  122. ^ "MapR Google Cloud Platform". Mapr.com. Retrieved 2017.
  123. ^ "Why the Pace of Hadoop Innovation Has to Pick Up". Gigaom.com. 2011-04-25. Retrieved .
  124. ^ "Defining Hadoop". Wiki.apache.org. 2013-03-30. Retrieved .
  125. ^ "Defining Hadoop Compatibility: revisited". Mail-archives.apache.org. 2011-05-10. Retrieved .
  126. ^ "Apache Accumulo User Manual: Security". apache.org. Apache Software Foundation. Retrieved .


External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.


Manage research, learning and skills at IT1me. Create an account using LinkedIn to manage and organize your IT knowledge. IT1me works like a shopping cart for information -- helping you to save, discuss and share.

  Contact Us  |  About IT1me.com |  IT Training & References |  IT Careers |  IT Hardware |  IT Software |  IT Books